The focus of past research on 남자 밤 일자리 barriers to postgraduate study in STEM has been on the academic career of young women in STEM. However, little is known with respect to the perception of STEM among adolescent youth and how this perception differs between male and female students. Studies have shown that young women have a more pronounced gender stereotype of math and science than men, and that the impact of this stereotype on female students career aspirations differs from that of male students. In this study, we compared the career barriers of male (n = 14) and female (n= 14) secondary students in STEM disciplines. We found that male students perceived math as less masculine than female students, whereas female students perceived science as less feminine than mens (Der et al., 2015).
Our findings suggest that the strong masculine image of math has a stronger negative impact on the enrollment of male secondary school students in a STEM major than the gender stereotype. Credibility Another theme that was commonly raised in 10 of the 14 focus groups was the idea that girls are not as good as boys in terms of STEM. This was often reinforced by male colleagues who were able to perform administrative tasks more efficiently than female scientists. Experiencing a male-dominated environment This was a theme commonly raised by female students in all of the focus groups, but was more prevalent among female students than male students in the rest of the groups. It was often accompanied by a feeling of being out of place, and not being treated equally to male colleagues in the STEM field.
Many participants also reported personal negative experiences, such as not being given leadership roles, being treated as less competent than men, and experiencing sexual objectification. Lack of Confidence Many women reported a lack of confidence in STEM fields. Many women felt that their appearance was judged more harshly than mens. Bias in Communication Many participants reported that they were judged based on their appearance and how they communicated.
The overarching theme in the 14 focus groups was that women in STEM face different expectations than men. Sexual Harassment was not seen as a small problem in the focus groups. Women in engineering and science male settings were more likely to report sexual harassment than women in non-male settings. Communication stereotypes place expectations on women that are different from those placed on men. One women in a focus group said that her male coworkers in computer jobs were more critical of her than her male colleagues. Another women said that she felt that her workplace was a hostile environment for women. Der, E.P., et al., (2015), “Exploring Communication Stereotypes Place Expectations on Women in STEM Jobs.
Gender discrimination in recruitment, hiring, and promotions is a major reason why women are underrepresented in engineering jobs. Wide differences in education play a role in the gender disparity in engineering. Women are more likely than men to have less education and less work experience. Women who have a postgraduate degree are less likely to work in engineering than those who have only completed undergraduate studies. Womens education and work experience are also less likely than those of men to be rewarded in engineering, even when they have the same education and the same level of work experience as their male counterparts. Women also earn less than men for the same work.
For instance, women workers in STEM occupations have the lowest percentages of full-time students reaching college. The majority of STEM majors are male-dominated, with an even mix of genders in non-STEM majors. The myth of the “Math Brain” is one of the most destructive ideas. Research has shown that cognitive biological differences between men and women do not exist. Engineering majors, such as computer science and information science, have the most male-dominant workplaces, while women are more represented in female workplaces in science and engineering majors such as biology, chemistry, and physics.